Transfer of the capital of Turkey to Ankara
Modern Turkey. If joining of Turkey to EU after all occurs, its centenary relation to the West will undergo still bolshushchy, than at Ataturk, to tests. Long time limitation of its ideology and a cult of its personality practically were not discussed, and the question which has risen in 1983 of new ways of development of the country and remained open. Followed it quick destruction of the Russian Union and the configurations which have occurred on the Balkans, have expanded possibilities of regional impact, and on the 1st plan there were the acquaintances who were already meeting in the history of Turkey to a tendency. Become independent the former Russian republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus in the 1990th have got under influence of a soft pantyurkizm persistently strengthening links with Erdogan’s these states. Its tests actively supported the USA which expected to balance moderate Sunni impact of feeble effort of Shiite Iran. After difficult start the 1990th business in Turkey of the beginnings of investment to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, and in 1995 level of these investments already made 6, 5 billion dollars. Almost always say about construction of pipelines from these regions which more safely and less randomly, than tankers passing through Bosporus, would supply with oil Turkey deprived of own stocks of natural fuel. Besides upon termination of construction she would began to get profit for transit of the Central Asian and Caucasian oil to the countries of Europe. In May, 2005 one of such projects — the Baku pipeline — Ceyhan on which oil arrives from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan in located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Iskendurun has been complete. The construction project of even more short and cheap pipeline discussed earlier through Iran to the Persian Gulf has not received support under the pressure of the USA and Israel, and Turkey has been chosen as its candidate. It became good news to Turkish economy though locals of Turkey and have treated it with even minimum enthusiasm because they had to throw, having obtained moderate compensation, the houses in Turkey on which the pipeline was laid and objects on its protection against terrorists were under construction. Even more at Turkey the signed agreements on supply of natural gas. Without considering some gas from the Russian Federation which goes to Samsun on laid on a bottom of the Dark sea to the pipeline, it arrives also from Azerbaijan and Iran: despite pressure of the USA which have declared Iran by one of the countries of «an evil axis», frontier trade with the last (both legitimate, and illegal) continues unshakably grow. In the Caucasus the closest affairs at Turkey have developed with Azerbaijan, the related similarity of language, history and border near Nakhichevan. The Turkish government, remembering invasion consequences to Cyprus, has ignored outlook of the public, furiously demanding active military intervention in prolonged opposition of Azerbaijanians and Armenians, but nothing has prevented the Turkish weapon and volunteers to get into the area of operations. In the late nineties there was a tiny warming of the relations and with Armenia which hopes for settlement of difficulty of Nagorno-Karabakh in the course of negotiations. But refusal of Turkey to recognise massacre and deportations of Armenians in 1895 and 1915 not only gives to her zabugorny opponents a constant occasion to attacks, well and means that these contacts hardly will develop further. Because Armenian-Turkish affairs remain cool, the increasing interest causes the straight line construction project жд branches from Kars in the capital of Georgia of Tbilisi, urged to change at present existing which passes on the Armenian district. Together with a pantyurkizm in the country повеяло ancestors of the majority modern the Turk and where the important Muslim diaspora still lives have occurred an old ottomanizm when Turkey has started to show the overestimated interest to the processes going on the Balkans, from where. Turkey sent own officers for training of army of Albania occupied generally by Muslims, rendered it the economic and consulting help. Affairs with Bulgaria became considerably better after there the governmental coalition included the DPS party organised by ethnic Turks. Turkey one of the first recognised and has sent own ambassador to Macedonia. But, maybe, a big surprise is quick expansion of its trading and cultural contacts to Greece. So, she is the eighth partner in value for the Greek export companies, on its district some Greek banks were already hooked, and hundred parts of thousands Greeks come here for the period of own holiday. The capital of Turkey have transferred from Istanbul to remote Ankara. Here on October 29, 1923 the independent secular Turkish republic has been proclaimed, and Moustapha Kemal has unanimously been elected it the president. The constitution of 1924 provided temporary board of one party – National and republican. It allowed to pass shortly to full democracy. Since 1923 Moustapha Kemal has taken the printsipny measures directed on a sekulyarizatsiya and economic development of the country. It has carried out the whole series соц and political reforms which have mentioned all spheres of life. The caliphate has been abolished, and the church is broken from the country. The western clothes style has been entered, it is forbidden to carry a veil and tarbooshes. Turkish language have cleared of the Arab words, and the Arab alphabet have changed for Latin. Education have transferred in hands of secular schools. The program on illiteracy elimination has been developed, and education for ladies and rural dwellers became neotklonimy. Polygamy was forbidden, the Gregorian calendar is entered, management is reconstructed and the new code of laws is accepted. Improvements have touched communication systems, means, agriculture and the industry. In 1934 when began to use surnames, Moustapha Kemal has taken itself a surname Ataturk that the father the Turk» means «. Ataturk has died on November 10, 1938 in a palace Dolmabakhche (Istanbul) at the age of 57 years. Its contribution to history of Turkey — this transformation of the country from an absolute feudal monarchy in the modern independent secular government, whose citizens have received freedom and safety which did not dream their ancestors.
The history of Turkey connected with occurrence into the Ottoman Empire of Van
Van and Armenians. For modern Turkey Van’s history — very unhealthy a question which inseparably linked with is earlier living in East Turkey, and at present completely disappeared Armenian population. Tribes хурритов were the very first inhabitants of the area of the lake Van. About 1900 they have based here the government stretching for the South to borders of modern Syria, and in 1400 their territorial claims even have led to the conflict with хеттами. In the IX century BC the shattered kingdom хурритов is already clear as the government of Urartu. Van who carried then Tushp’s name became the capital of the country. At tsar Argishti I (786-762 BC) round it all territory described in this head, also some regions of modern Iraq, Iran and Syria has incorporated. In the southeast of Turkey and in modern Armenia it has been found about dozen of fortresses of Urartu. Urarttsa also were high-quality jewellers: fine samples of their products are stored at present in Van’s Museum. Not including that, it is considered that directly inhabitants of Urartu are at the beginnings of winemaking. To Urartu for eyelids resisted at first Assyrians, and later to Scythians; that, eventually, has led first VII century BC to its decline. About 612 BC Persians have grasped the weak government of Urartu then in the basin of the lake Van the Armenians who have moderately mixed up with local population began to appear. It is considered that Armenians have come here from the Caucasus, but Herodotus considered them as frigiyets, and Strabane assumed that Syrians and Babylonians were their ancestors. What there was their origin, at the time of board of the Persian tsar Darius I (521-486 to N. э.) Armenians was already so much that they have formed the vassal province. The starting point of history of the Armenian statehood has considered 331 BC when Alexander the Great, having broken Persians, has replaced governors of own again found territories. After Alexander Armeniya’s death became a part of the empire сельджуков, and has passed at first парфян, and after Romans later. Between 95 and 55 BC Armenia led by tsar Tigran II ("Great"), united with the father-in-law Mitridat Pontiyskim, for short time has found independence of the Roman Empire which, but, upon termination of a little prolonged military campaign against rebels, has returned itself the region back. At Romans and Byzantines Armenia played important role in Christianity distribution. By the end of the III century, during board of tsar Trdat III, thanks to St. Grigory Prosvetitelya’s efforts it became the first the state, accepted Christianity at city level. And when, after acceptance Milan эдикта 313 g, the Christianity became the religion resolved on all district of the Byzantian empire, the Armenian church could be consolidated even more and even to declare the independence. To 404 g monk Mesrop Mashtots has developed the Armenian alphabet which practically has not exchanged so far. In 451 g. The Armenian Apostolic church has refused to recognise domination of the Byzantian Halkedonsky Cathedral which declared dual essence of the Christ: Armenians as Copts and representatives of the Syrian orthodox church, adhered to the monofizitsky doctrine that the human essence of the Christ has been completely absorbed by the divine. IX and X-th centuries have beheld the greatest blossoming of the Armenian culture, in particular near the lake Van, under control of Atsruni’s dynasty.
Genocide of inhabitants of Turkey during the First World War
Long opposition to Constantinople and office of Armenia has weakened the Byzantian empire, and in 1064, even before fatal fight of 1071 at Mankitsert, Van have grasped сельджуки. Running Armenians have based the short-lived government Cilicia which the dynasty competing to Artsuni operated. Vassal Georgia Armenia has revived in the XII-XIII centuries, but in an extent of the XIII—XIV centuries it constantly was exposed to destructive attacks the Turkmen, Mongols and Persians. In the XV-XVI centuries control over Armenia was grasped by the Ottomans who have won in 1548 Van from Persia. The Ottoman board has brought to Armenians prosperity: as well as behind other non-Muslim minority, the right to education and observance of family municipal traditions has been fixed to them to such an extent that them even called садык Miletus («the lawful people»). So proceeded till XIX century. when to a descent with development of revolutionary moods in «sick Europe» in Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire nationalist tendencies have started to prevail. Then the Armenian nationalists with support interested in disorder of the Ottoman Empire of Russian have made some acts of cruelty in relation to Turks. From the First World War beginning Armenians had to make a choice between belligerent parties, but by their 1918 already actually did not remain neither around Van, nor in other areas of Turkey, without considering Istanbul. Acts of 1915-1918. In spite of the fact that in 1912-1915 some thousand Armenians served in Ottoman army, in East Anatoli in education attempt in primordial territories of Armenians independent Armenian the countries there was a global conflict, finally which many locals have acted on the party of Russian. Turks living here and Kurds attacked vansky Armenians who were locked in the old city. "Scala Van’s" Turkish garrison from above has shot his walls from heavy artillery pieces. Bloodshed has for a while come to the end, when in May in Turkey 1915 Van Russian have taken, but after counterattack of Ottomans the army of the Russian Empire has receded, and the Armenians who have escaped during a slaughter-house ran together with it. But in August in Turkey Russian and Armenian regiments have come back again in Van and even have promoted further away on the East where have staid up to disorder of the Russian Empire in 1917. During this occupation Armenians by means of Russian have recouped for defeat in 1915, having compelled Muslims to leave potentially sovereign district of Armenia. Turkish sources say that at all this has been killed to 600 000 Turk and Kurds — is direct about these victims and the Section of genocide of museums in Vanya and Erzurum knows. Meanwhile the Turkish authorities have taken measures against the Armenian population living in territories supervised by them. The party Mladoturkov at insistance of Minister of Internal Affairs Talaat pashi declared deportation of Armenians from Anatoli to Syria. Numerous witnesses knew how in the huge cities of the Armenian children, ladies and old men drove for deportation, and the young men, capable to hold the tool, executed. Thus, from 1915 to 1920 it has been killed from 700 000 to 1 000 000 Armenian civilians. When in 1927 in the Turkish Republic the 1st population census, in Vanya where before war lived 80 000 people has been carried out, only some thousands have survived. Old Van’s destruction was so strong that it so never and has not been restored. Instead of it in 4 km from the lake, for there are blossoming suburbs in what rich Armenian merchants lived, have built new Van.
Learn preconditions of painful business of the authorities to Van the ordered rounds to Turkey from Khabarovsk can.