Mysteries of history of old Egypt – take-off and falling of Islamic Cairo
Islamic Cairo conceals in itself numerous mysteries of history of old Egypt. It represents a conglomerate from полудюжины the cities, various names, the age and which situation develop in unusually confused picture of an urbanization. Builders considered features of culture of Egypt and the unique constant feature was that the new cities povsevremenno were under construction to the North from the old. It occurred on very ordinary to the reason: expansion on the East and the West has been limited to hills Mukattam and Nile (which course in the ancient time lay to the east, than now) while the prevailing north carried a smoke and a smell of earlier settlements from new areas. Therefore, when Amr’s Muslim armies have attached Egypt to the Islamic world in 641, they have founded the city of Al-Fustat directly to the North from Coptic Babylon. Population of Egypt in this city was great. It has turned into a stronghold of new belief, having deprived Alexandria of the status of the head city of Egypt, though continued to remain the usual provincial capital within the big Islamic empire which Caliphs governed from Damascus. The unique certain contact of the Caliph to Cairo has taken place only when the last from Omeyadov (661-750) at first ran in At-Fustat, and has burnt it later. Abbasida’s his successors (750-935) let’s the order build up anew the city further to the North: so there was Medinet al-Askar (the City of Barracks). This monument of old Egypt can be examined, having chosen rounds to Egypt with children.
History of religion of Egypt and power change in ancient Cairo
The support Abbasidov on Turkic soldiers to whom lands on all empire, including Egypt expostulated has appeared more printsipny in long-term prospect. In 870, having used discontent of the people, the abbasidsky governor of Egypt has proclaimed independence and has selected Syria at Caliphs. As well as his predecessors, Ahmed ibn Tulun has founded the new city, on the district from Medinet al-Askar to Mukattam’s spurs. The country history changed – the history of religion of Egypt changed also. On a sample of the capital of the caliphate of Sa-marra it consisted of a big mosque, a palace and a hippodrome, surrounded with "Yards" (Al-Katay) or military quarters on which the city has been called. But, when Abbasida have intruded in Egypt in 905, Al-Katay has been destroyed, and its place has been opened. Have spared only ibn Tuluna’s huge mosque which costs and to this day. To behold a mosque the eyes, it is possible having chosen rest in Egypt New year. The city has found a shadow of own former value at Ikhshididakh (935-969) which have separated from late abbasidsky Caliphs. But the incentive to revival of the city and all Islamic empire has come from Tunisia where followers of Shiite Islam have made the own theocratic government under control of descendants Ali and Fatima – dynasties Fatimidov. Intending to grasp the caliphate, they have struck across Egypt – the population of Egypt in particular has suffered. The country was printsipny, but badly protected base, and in 969 have grasped it with army in 100 000 people. Fati-midsky the general Jauhar ("Brilliant") turned into Islam the Greek, immediately has begun construction of the new city where this dynasty (969-1171) further governed. By the way, if you cost of flats in Egypt at present interests, you can gather information in local newspapers.
Build monuments of old Egypt in Islamic Cairo
By this time of distinction between more raneshny cities were erased, because people lived everywhere where it was can be, in the middle of moderately breaking up city education known as Masr (that also means "Egypt"). Fatimida have separated from Masr, having constructed the city of Al-Kakhira ("Victorious") is farther to the North, than ever. Have remained main build monuments of old Egypt to its history. Directly in al-Azkhar mosque the 1st fatimid-sky governor of Egypt Al-Muizz has preached before being gone for a long time in own palaces (from which as disappointingly it would not sound, there was one only the name). Al-Hakeem’s mosque stores memory of the Caliph which Masr let’s the order destroy after inhabitants have opposed announcements it a deity. Having gone for 10 days Egypt, it is possible to behold also great Northern walls and gate of Bab Zuveyla which have remained since construction at Al-Gyusha of additional strengthenings to Al-Kakhira’s already existing protective constructions.
The population of old Egypt in the starenky cities
But as the fatimidsky city grew, Fustat because people used a construction material from its thrown buildings moderately disappeared. This process has extended and on Masr, finally that there were huge areas хараб – the thrown quarters which the population of old Egypt simply left. Separate areas have accepted a certain uniform form only at Salakh-ad-Din (crusaders named him Saladin), constructed the Citadel on a rocky ledge between Al-Kakhira and Masr, and walls which have connected it to an aqueduct on Nile, having captured all city place. Salakh-ad-Din supported a sunnizm, instead of a Shiism and built madrasah for distribution of the orthodox doctrine. It governed not as the Caliph, as the secular master – the sultan. His successors – Ayyubida – decorated the modern centre of tourism in Egypt – have erected in the city minarets in the form of pepperboxes (has remained only certain of them, at madrasah and the mausoleum of sultan Ayub) and great tombs of abbasidsky Caliphs and imam al-Shafii (which has remained up to now) on the Southern cemetery. But they have created the same mistake, as Abbasida, relying on zabugorny the fighter and bodyguards. When the sultan has died, without having left the successor, and the help was necessary for his widow to remain in power, these fighters – мамлюки – have taken the country under the control. During this period, can be and the belief in Egypt has appeared in doubt.
Ancient people of Egypt – мамлюки
Ancient people of Egypt – мамлюки made the closed caste of the soldiers slaves at first occurring from Central Asia, and after gathered from all Close East and the Balkans. Their cost reflected "value" of an ethnic material in the markets of slaves (130-140 dinars for the Tatar, 110-120 for the Circassian, 50-80 for the Slav or the Albanian) plus personal characteristics: the preference was given to strong beautiful young men. The indigenous people of Egypt differed from мамлюков. By Mamlyuki which often were children of concubines and were brought up in barracks, moved ahead on service under the power of emirs who did them by the favourites and showered with gifts. With support of suitable emirs more ruthless мамлюки could even lay down to become sultans. Frequent changes of governors became norm, and applicants had to distribute generously bribes, is frequent for the organisation of murders. It should be noted, as features of art culture of old Egypt developed under their influence. Era мамлюков shares for the periods called on military divisions from which there were successful sultans: Mamlyukov-Bahri’s period (1250-1382) polovetsky or Tatar origins which barracks at first took place at the river (in Arab бахр), and the period of their Circassian successors mamlyukov-Burdzhi (1382-1517), billeted in the Citadel tower (бурдж).
Build the monuments of Egypt constructed мамлюками
It is paradoxical, but мамлюки were reputed as aesthetes, by their order monuments of Egypt – mosques, palaces and sabil-kuttaby of which Islamic Cairo still is proud were under construction a system. They built structures on all city: from Northern to the Southern cemetery and from the Citadel to Nile. Though the ordinary current of city life was constantly broken by their bloody conflicts, in the city, civilised institutes after all remained: public hospitals, libraries and the schools based by provided мамлюками and merchants. These are the next mysteries of history Egypt. Caravanserais have been overflowed with exotic products from Africa and spices from the East. Thus that Baghdad destroyed by Mongols lay in ruins, at Cairo was not equal in the Islamic world. By the way, cost of residence in Egypt in this area still not стращает wishing тормознуть here. Miracles of Islamic Cairo have formed a basis for many of fairy tales of Thousand and one night. But in 1517 Ottoman Turks have turned Egypt from independent the countries into the vassal province of the empire, and мамлюков – from owners in ordinary deputies. When Frenchmen and British have transferred the military acts on the district of Egypt, they have beheld the city, living last glory, archaic, shipped in themselves. People in Egypt were in despair: the population of the city decreased, and civil disorders flashed even more often. Travellers of the eighteenth century, such as P. P. Medical flax, have been struck «with poor poverty of Arabs and ostentatious luxury the Turk», not to mention absence «at least one tolerant street» in the city from 350 000 inhabitants.
Infinite monuments of culture of old Egypt in Islamic Cairo
City revival – and final shift from Islamic to modern Cairo – has occurred thanks to Mohammed Ali (1805-48) and it not to so fierce descendants. Mohammed Ali consisted on Turkish service, and has opposed own owners later. It has with little effort destroyed monuments of culture of old Egypt – the power remains мамлюков and has erected a huge mosque and palaces in the Citadel. Foreigners have been invited to posts of advisers for a development of the city, through the old city Shariya Kala (Mohammed Ali Boulevard) has been laid. When Rolls, Ezbekiya and other earlier marshy sites have been transformed to modern quarters in the style imitating the West, Islamic Cairo has stopped to be the centre of the power and a magnet for all aspiring to it. But, as very quickly understands though what tourist, its contrasts, monuments and live spirit remain not subject to time. Obligatory, not very well what trip to Egypt is worthy of it to behold this place.
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