Historical information. Era PSR. Currency of Turkey, take-off and lira falling in 2003-2006. The inhabitants of Turkey revolted with actions of the American military in Iraq | World travel, tourism and geography 

Historical information. Era PSR. Currency of Turkey, take-off and lira falling in 2003-2006. The inhabitants of Turkey revolted with actions of the American military in Iraq

Historical information. Era PSR. Currency of Turkey, take-off and lira falling in 2003-2006. The inhabitants of Turkey revolted with actions of the American military in Iraq

Long-awaited stabilisation of an exchange rate of Turkey
Against an introduction delay in members of EU and an incessant economic crisis, it is reasonable that on November 3, 2002 PSR has rushed into the power, having gained 34 % of votes and having received 363 of 550 places in parliament. Vperva for the last 15 years in Turkey created the majority government and if PSR has not consulted with the tasks, she could not accuse of it podkoverny fight in a coalition. NRP became the next party which has broken 10 %-ny a barrier. Having temporarily left game after elections of 1999, it has appeared not mixed in economic decline and has received 22 % of voices and 177 parliamentary chairs. Ultranationalist PND has gained 8 % instead of 19 % on last elections, PVP — 9 %, and the 3rd coalition partner ON — and that is less.« New Turkey» Ismail Jem and other parties which have broken away from huger and organised round own winners have not gathered practically anything. The party of national democracy (transformation of pro-Kurdish Democratic party which самораспустилась from fear to be illegal) has developped number of own supporters, but all the same could not receive places in parliament in spite of the fact that has taken the 1st place in 13 southeast provinces with generally Kurdish population. As a whole for PSR has voted only nine of more than 30 million officially registered voters. Damage of bulletins and ignoring of elections because of what actually 46 % of voters have not received own representation in parliament have achieved record level. On the European standards of 10 %-ny the minimum for passing to parliament has been unfairly overestimated (in the adjoining Greece, for example, this threshold made 5 %). It has been registered in the constitution of 1982. to exclude from a role in legislative process "regional" (read, Kurdish) menshinstva parties. But the most part of the population it for some reason did not interest, and at present much won from it earlier, but to the parties which have injured at present, did not remain anything, without considering how to kick. PSR de facto remaining by the winner Erdogan could not become the prime minister therefore president Cesaire needed to find urgently to it the acceptable candidate for now this post was temporarily occupied by the winner of the deputy majority, last doctor of economy Abdullah Gul who was freely knowing English and being considered as the moderate politician. At the end of December the PSR party which had in parliament necessary 2/z of voices, has made the amendment to the constitution that has allowed Erdogan to participate in all elections and, having become the deputy, to hold a post of the prime minister, as there was in February, 2003 Gul left the post and has received a portfolio of the minister of zabugorny affairs. PSR has hastened to assure all interested persons that she will adhere to the moderate program, to consult on questions of principle, and has immediately invited Baikal to join Erdogan in his victorious round on the European capitals, let’s to newspapers of Turkey an occasion argue about date of negotiations on the final accession of Turkey to the European Union. The exchange rate of Turkey, lira has slowed down the falling soon, local securities markets began to show stable growth, and Global bank, the business community and political opposition to express the approval. The new governmental program contained 36 measures developed on purpose to achieve compliance so-called to "The Copenhagen criteria», become condition of accession to EU. Erdogan has placed true emphasis on intolerance to application of tortures, but has been right there embarrassed by one of the Turkish TV channels, shown video of how the police beats the boy during demonstration in Ankara. Erdogan was so courageous that recognised denied by the Turkish governments in an extent of many years communication between the accession of Turkey to EU and existence of the Cyprian difficulty. Already approached on November 28 — the term put by the secretary general of the United Nations by Kofi Annan for adoption of its offers on this matter, but Denktash had a new heart attack. The next minister of zabugorny affairs of Turkey, having visited Denktash in the New York hospital, has tried to receive from it the promise to accept Annan’s proposal, and among December, 2002 EU summit in Copenhagen declared that «Turkey becomes the candidate state on joining to the European Union». In the text of the resolution term of negotiations on the final introduction was not specified, and Erdogan has accused EU of double samples, having compared Turkey to the countries of the Central Europe which have been admitted to the Union, without having stayed in candidates and decades. But even the USA and Great Britain, resolutely supporting Turkey on the international scene and intrigued in to losing own basic Middle Eastern ally on a war case with Iraq, could not break the French-German axis of resistance opposing purposes of exact date of negotiations.
Indignation of inhabitants of Turkey concerning capture their fighter in captivity in Iraq
The 1st months 2003 have passed under the badge of future American invasion into Iraq. Turkish analysts were declined to that the victory on elections of 2002 of PSR party has been inspired by the USA which counted on its help in Iraq. It has become clear later that they have very much miscalculated. Despite Erdogan’s position, the resolution according to which the USA could use Turkey as the base for invasion into Iraq from the North, has failed, and on March 1 the parliament has voted against placement on the district of the country 62 000 American fighter, 255 jet planes and 65 helicopters. For refusal there was an unlimited quantity of events even if not to take into consideration that this invasion not approved by the United Nations contradicted the international right. Turkey only started to come to the senses after crisis of 2000-2001 and war in the Persian Gulf 1991 which had tragic consequences for national economy. Even more this decision was affected by a nightmare of Turkey that split after Saddam Hussein’s overthrow the country cannot hold in the structure of Kurds and those form independent Kurdistan on a place of the semi-independent republic. Hearings went that in case the USA attack Iraq, the Municipal Council of safety will enter Turkish armies into its areas occupied by Kurds. Fears also sounded that at inconstancy available after September 11 if Turkey supports the USA in their rage against Arab the countries, becomes direct it the next purpose of Islamic terrorists. Vpribavok to all this and the pro-Islamic government 1st in Turkey, and public outlook were against though what similar cooperation therefore it is reasonable that Turks have made this courageous and risky decision. Under strong pressure of Washington Turkish Byuyyuk Medzhlis (parliament) has voted on March 20 (in day of invasion into Iraq) about granting a Turkish air place to military planes of the USA. But it was not enough and already very late to calm the USA, and bilateral affairs of the countries have worsened, more than ever earlier. The critical point has been reached in July when the Turkish military personnel, it is concealed operating in the north of Iraq, have been taken prisoner by the American armies. Indignation the Turk, beheld own connected by so-called allies the fighter with the bags put on the head, did not understand a limit. It has given a reason for an exit in 2005 of the most economic for all history of the country of the film «Kurtlar Vadisi — Iraq» («the Valley of Wolves, Iraq») in what the thought-up Turkish heroes кроваво revenged perfidious Yankees. In Turkey in April, 2003 again has come up a question of ordinary ladies’ headdresses when nekolebimy "sekulyarist" (the president, generals and oppositional members of parliament from NRP) boycotted parliamentary meeting on which there should be the wife of the speaker who has come in a hijab. After that the ruling party should make a curtsey towards adherents of the secular Republic, and in the message to Islamic conference passing in Iran the minister of zabugorny affairs Abdullah Gul has allocated need for Muslims to expand democracy and to pay special attention to human rights as a whole and I will give and is concrete. This autumn the country, more than ever earlier, has suffered from terrorists. On November 15 have blown up, having killed 25 and having wounded 300 people, two cars parked at a synagogue. In 5 days, on November 20, bombisty-suicides attacked by the car of the British and American allies in Iraq. At explosion of the British embassy and branch of the HSBC bank located in London, it has been killed 30 and 450 people the most part from which were Turks are wounded. Thus, the nightmare to appear the purpose of terrorists began to be embodied in reality, even despite the smaller help which Turkey rendered to invaders of Iraq. At first of explosions have accused "Al-Qaeda", but the Kurds connected with "Al-Qaeda", inhabitants of houses in Turkey of the poor city of Bingyol in east part of Turkey, and because they have appeared members of the Islamic terrorist organisation Turkish Hizbullakh have appeared its performers, has again started to lift the head a ghost «the states in the state». Not including that, without considering the deepest mental trauma, their attack (in particular against disorders in Iraq) has struck blow to tourism — very printsipny for economy of Turkey to sector. Many people, both Turks — and foreigners — could estimate irony of on advantage that operating competently and passionately "Islamic" party, instead of all last "sekulyarny" governments has achieved potential membership of Turkey in EU. This moment was underlined in Turkey in March, 2004. after command of land forces of Turkey has given the order to all military staffs and local civil governors to collect information on groups and individuals, «sowing conflicts or conducting subversive activities». Together with «ordinary suspects» (representatives of municipal minority and members of religious groups) existed and «known supporters of the USA and EU». Such xenophobia in type of westernized army could not remain unnoticed, on the last measure, the Turkish press to which hands the circular has got. There was a question, whether military want to accuse of all failures the civil power or after all wish to obey to it as it takes place in all countries — members of EU. In May the Turkish soldiery has incurred one more defeat when the government has reduced planned for army modernisation the budget with 9 to 4 billion dollars, having adopted the amendment to the constitution which the vpervy has forced managing directors of army to report for all required means. The Cyprian discrepancy continued to remain on a proscenium of foreign policy. On April 24, 2004 the next blow when, despite solid overweight in number (65 % of the population), Turkish Cypriots have voted for the developed United Nations the association scheme has been struck to supporters of isolation of Northern Cyprus, renouncing opposition so for a long time supported by Denktash. After all Annan’s plan has been rejected, because against it 2/3 Greeks living in Cyprus have voted. In completion to all to Turks and in Northern Cyprus, and in the Turkey (which have treated the plan it is very weakened) it was necessary to look soon, how in a week the Southern (Greek) Cyprus have simply admitted to EU as the representative of all island. The commissioner of EU on expansion Gunter Verkhugen swore that has been misled by Youzhny Kipra’s government which has assured him that supports the plan of the United Nations. The Turkish hawks never trusting to "false" Greeks, have felt themselves rehabilitated, well and all other inhabitants of Turkey — vpervy from island division in 1974 — have tested the deepest moral ublazheniye in spite of the fact that the Cyprian Greeks who have entered EU theoretically could block the accession to EU of Turkey. Turkish Cypriots continued to support the own initiatives, urged to finish their international isolation that was promoted much also by that fact that acceptance in Youzhny Kipra’s EU did by citizens of EU of all given rise in both parts of the island. In February, 2005 on elections in the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, having collected 45 % of votes, the Turkish Republican Party has won a victory, whose program was based on idea of association of the island that in 2002 even it was heavy to present. Crossing the peninsula «Attila’s line» even in the spring of 2003. has stopped to be an invincible obstacle, and people freely passed it in both directions, going for work, behind purchases to meet old friends or as tourists in Turkey.
New blow on travel business of Turkey
In the summer of 2004 the immemorial, sharp and exciting question of ordinary ladies’ headdresses again has been brought up. Prime minister Erdogan had to send own daughters — which, as well as their mother, hijabs carried — to study in institute in the USA because houses their headdresses still remained under a ban. He hoped that this question can be solved through the European court on human rights to which citizens of Turkey have at present got access, but the Court has rejected the claim of 2 Turkish students, whose religious feelings have been offended, when them have deducted from institute for hijab carrying. In the autumn of business between the government of Turkey and EU have deteriorated after Erdogan, maybe, to cajole own more narrow voters, has supported the bill of joint stock company of criminal prosecution of a prelyubodeyaniye. Finally mini-crisis has burst, discussions about the fast accession of Turkey to EU have passed to other rails, securities markets began to be in a fever, and the rate of Turkish lira has fallen. The bill have ruined (after all, Erdogan was more quick the pragmatist, than the fan), and soon (on December 12) in EU have published the report in what it was said that negotiations on date of terms of the introduction of Turkey in EU can already begin in October, 2005. The country was overflowed by a wave of triumph and gloomy presentiments: began to seem that Europe eventually is ready to accept Turkey in the embraces, but at all this, for compliance to "The Copenhagen criteria», carrying out a set of reforms was required that, surely, should cause terrible configurations in public and political life of the country. In the summer of 2005. in Turkey large-scale campaign against personal possession of the fire tool and its uses for festive firing has begun during weddings and after printsipny football matches, finally which once a year from stray bullets in the country perished to 700 people. The statistics according to whom the tool in the country every 4th house owner possessed, and more impressed rise in crime, in particular in Istanbul, made already 35 %. World society disturbed for a long time the relation the Turk to Kurdish minority, in September they had a new occasion to concern, a cat eye there were Turkish Armenians. Two tests of local and zabugorny scientists to organise conference on a subject «Ottoman Armenians in an empire decline» (in other words whether was or not genocide of Armenians in 1915-1918) have failed, as the court has forbidden to lead it in premises of city institutes. After all, it eventually has taken place at the end of the month at personal institute of Bilgi in Istanbul. Despite its picketing by ultranationalists, attacks from the right newspapers and полудюжины judicial proceedings over organizers of conference and accepting in it a role journalists, the last taboo in life of Turkish society has been removed. In essence, the government, скрепя teeth, has given OK to its carrying out, understanding that behind it EU fixedly looks. After all in September of the same year of the leading modern writer of Turkey Orhan Pamuk it agrees new, without superfluous noise to the adopted law «About slander» have brought to court for words (said in 2004 in interview to one Swiss newspaper) that in Anatoli about 1 million Armenians have been killed, and only he is ready to speak about it aloud. The international public was indignant, and though business was tightened till January, it, eventually, has collapsed. It has not calmed (can be because he was not the known writer in the world) Grant Drink, the editor of the bilingual Armenian-Turkish newspaper "Agos" leaving in Istanbul. He has declared that, being the Turk of the Armenian origin, considers the Turkish anthem discrimination — and has received 6 months of conditional term for an insult of a Turkish municipal sign. Everything specified that the freedom of speech in Turkey still remains hard attainable aim. Against it negotiations on purpose of date of the introduction of Turkey in members of EU on October 3 have begun. In November the Commission on expansion has noted that in Turkey still there are difficulties with freedom of will, religion, also in the relations between the military and civil authorities (in Council of state safety), and that the government has ruined fight against poverty and intensity in the country southeast. Vobshchem, in the same report already it was more optimistically noted that «Turkey can be considered as the state of market economy», and PSR government, strictly adhering to maturity dates of debts of IMF, has shown the competence, having managed vpervy to reduce for many decades inflation. The Cyprian discrepancy became one more obstacle to the accession to EU again — Turkey continued to break customs rules of the European Union, refusing to accept in own ports planes and Youzhny Kipra’s sea vessels as still did not recognise the government of this country. In December the European court on human rights has passed the decision in favour of the Greek Cypriots to whom since 1974 it has been refused the right of use by their property located in the north of the island. It became clear that the Turkish government of Northern Cyprus — and even more continental Turkey — can face with cruel неуввязками, connected with compensations on hundred parts of similar claims. Has begun hard 2006. Public attention was in a flash involved by the remote, Kurdish city of Diyarbakir located near to the Iranian border. In cold, snow January epidemic of the deadly virus H5N1 called by "bird flu" 5 children from families of poor people became which victims there has burst. After that a virus have found and in other regions of Turkey, million heads of poultry have been destroyed, and in the country captured by a panic the quantity of its meat in the markets was reduced by 70 %. Though the virus has been transferred soon by migratory birds and to the countries of Europe, it has struck a mortal blow to travel business of Turkey, having stopped many Europeans who were going to spend the summer holidays on its Mediterranean coast. In the spring in the southeast of the country attacks of refreshed RPK to military facilities and the demonstrations provoked have renewed, according to the Turkish authorities, pro-Kurdish TV channel ROJ which broadcast from the district of Denmark. In reply the government has prepared new anti-terrorist the law in what, among the rest, it was told about criminal liability of parents for a role of their children in demonstrations. Turkish liberals have beheld in it a return sign to a shadowy past, and their fears only have amplified, when divisions of internal security have crushed offices of pro-Kurdish party of democratic society and her many members are arrested.

Learn about all obstacles to the accession of Turkey to EU the ordered rounds to Turkey from Astana can.

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